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Tuesday, February 9, 2010

Pathogen Control

- You could place a filter to prevent entry of wild water that brings the possibility of disease. This step can also control the entry of snails, parasite, Argulus and Lernaea.

- You can add lime to your pond (should be done when dried). This will kill pathogens and kept the pond bed from getting sour. Lime rates used are 865 kg for 1 hectare pond.

- New batch of fish should be treated with formalin (200 ppm for 10-20 minutes) before releasing them into the pool. This can remove the parasites on the fish.

- If there are facilities, keep the treated fish in tanks / small pond for 2 weeks to ensure that fish do not have any diseases.

- Do not mix small fish together with large fish as this can cause primer disease.

Stress factors

To control fish diseases, stress factors that are causing it should be noted as follows;


The fishes bodily temperature are depending on environment conditions (water), thus, temperature is an important factor. If temperature changes occur quickly, the fishes will experience shock and this will cause them to be weak. Shallow pond water is not appropriate. Water will warm quickly during mid-day and will cool faster when it rains suddenly. New batch of fishes should be float in the pond before releasing them. Please read here .

Resources and Water Quality

Pond water should not contain organic pollutants, it should be more than 4ppm of oxygen content, ammonia content does not exceed 0.02 ppm and its pH between 6.5 - 9.0.


Handling is important in any operation, rough handling could wound your fishes. Wounds that can provide opportunities for pathogens and diseases to attacks them.

Crowd Factor

Too many fish in one pond could also cause congestion. Congestion factors will further increase the ammonia content in your pond thus decreasing the water quality. In addition, fish also experience stress.


Fish food, especially for breeding purpose are composed of natural food , phytoplankton, zooplankton and other food supplements. Food should be given preferably 2 times a day, in the morning and evening. Be careful when feeding your fishes, feeding excessively will cause decreased water quality.

Pond Features

To control and prevent fish disease from contaminating all of your pond, each pond should have a separate inlet and outlet flow.

Diseases caused by VIRUS

Viruses are organisms which are more refined than bacterias and it can not be viewed under normal microscope. Usually virus scan are done with high powered microscope in a labratory. Currently there are no certain method for virus protection. Virus diseases often occurs with bacterial diseases . It clinical signs, virus removal, treatment and control methods are almost the same as bacterial diseases.

Diseases caused by BACTERIA

There are bacterias in the waters and all around the system. When stress factors exist, bacteria can cause disease to your fishes.

Signs of disease

- The body of the fish becomes reddish if not controlled, the reddish mark will spread throughout the body and eventually becomes ulcer

- Fishes will lost its appetite

- Sometimes the eyes and belly will get swollen

- Death of fish caused by bacterias are usually high and simultaneous


Use Furanace 0.05ppm until recover

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