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Sunday, January 31, 2010

Diseases caused by FUNGI

1. Saprolegniasis

This disease occurs when the fishes experienced stress (secondary disease) such as congestion in the fish tank, cage or pond, water quality deterioration, wound on the body caused by parasites or coarseness during handling.

Signs of disease

- Saprolegniasis fungi will look like cotton on the body of the affected fish

- There are signs of redness around the fungi

- It attacks the area around wound and fish eggs


1. Methylene blue 2 ppm - Continue until recover

2. Potassium permanganate 10 ppm for 90 minutes

Thursday, January 21, 2010

Disease caused by ENDOPARASITE (internal parasites)

So far, there are no major problem caused by Endoparasite. Endoparasite that cause disease are:

1. Trematoda Digenetic

These parasites invades the eye and causes swelling in that area. The central cornea will appear gray. White spots appear in the pupil (Worm larvae Displostumum Spatheum). It eats fish lens causing blindness.

2. Nematodes (roundworms) and Cestodes (tapeworms)

Tape Worms and Ring Worms invade the stomach, muscles, bladder, intestines and the eyes. Fishes will lose weight and look lean. Therefore, infected fish cannot be use for spawning. These worms do not cause high mortality of fish and if death occurs, it is not simultaneous.


There is no satisfactory treatment. Therefore, it is recommended to prevent and control these parasites by removing snails carrying the parasite from your pond.

Lernaesis (Anchor Worm)

Caused by the parasites Lernaea Sp. Commonly infecting Grass Carp, Javanese Carp, Kissing Gourami, Giant Carp, Large Headed Carp and Common Carp. These parasite invades the body (outer surface) of the fish by sucking the bodily fluids thus causing tissue damages to the head, eyes, tail and fins.

Signs Of Disease

- There are red signs on the body

- Usually small fishes will die and large fishes will experience a lack of weight.


1. Sodium chloride (salt) from 8 ppm to 11 ppm for 10-15 minutes. Once every week for 4 weeks.

2. Dipterex 0.25 ppm once in every week for 4 weeks consecutively.

Monday, January 11, 2010

Argulosis (fish lice)

Caused by parasite Argulus. Argulus are plate-shaped and greenish in color. It measures 7mm in diameter. Argulus can be seen with the naked eye on the body of the fish. This disease usually attacks Grass carp, Giant Carp, Common Carp, Kissing Gourami (Temakang) and Large Headed Carp. This parasite invades the outside of the body by sucking blood on the head and tail fin just like a vampire.

Signs Of Disease

- Fish becomes thin due to loss of body fluid sucked by the parasite.

- There are traces of blood on the body where the parasite are staying.

- Deaths will occur if the number of parasite are too high.


1. Potassium permanganate 10 ppm for 30 minutes max.

2. Dipterex (Masoten or Trichlorfon) 0.25 ppm once in every week for 2 weeks

Fish ponds (Earth Pond) affected by this disease must be dried and limed at the rate of 1.5 tonnes per hectare.


The causative agent for gyrodactylosis is Gyrodactylus salaris (a small parasitic flatworm). Usually attacks Marble Goby and Common Carp. This parasite invades on the body surface only. Important: fishes with disease may show one or more of the signs below, but disease may still be present in the absence of any signs. On the pond or tank level, you may see the fishes scrubbing (rubbing against objects in response to skin irritation) and flashing (darting and twisting of fish and erratic swimming).

Signs Of Disease

Same with white spots disease


Similar to treatment for Dactylogyrosis.

Sunday, January 10, 2010

Dactylogyrosis (Gill Fluke)

Caused by the parasite Dactylogyrus. This parasite usually attacks Grass Carp, Silver Carp and Large Headed Carp. Matured parasites will stick itself to the gills to spawn.

Signs Of Disease

- Gills will appear bloody and there will be excessive mucus (early stage)

- In serious condition, gill filament will corrupt and the fish can't close its operculum properly resulting in breathing difficulties.


1. Sodium chloride 10 to 15 ppm for 10 to 15 minutes

2. Methylene Blue 2 to 4 ppm for 30 to 45 minutes

3. Formalin 200 to 250 ppm continuing until healed (Not suitable for Large Headed Carp fries)

Saturday, January 9, 2010


Caused by the parasite Myxobolus and Henneguya. It usually attacks Marble Gobies and Common Carps. Both parasites are found on the gills. For Myxobolus, it is also found on the skin. This form of the parasite are cyst in shape (spore-containing spores) and will burst when it matures. Spore are released into the water and infection will occur.

Signs Of Disease

- Fish becomes pale (serious). White and round cyst along with the parasite (nominally 2-4 mm) can be seen in the gills. The gill are sometimes clustered.

- Fish skin began to swell (parasite Myxobolus)

- In normal circumstances, death will occur slowly.

So far, there is no treatment for the disease. It is recommended to control and prevent disease from happening.

Ichthyobodo, Trichodina & Chilodonella

This type of parasite usually attacks Grass Carp, Common Carp, Common Siamese Gourami, Large Headed Carp and Javanese Carp. Signs of disease are just like the sign of white spots.

The common treatments are :-

1. Mix Sodium Chloride + Formalin (20-25 ppm + 1000 ppm) 2-3 times sequentially every 2 days (1 week)

2. Potassium permanganate (100 ppm) 5-10 minutes but please take note that this method is not suitable for Large Headed Carp fries.

3. Formalin (2.5 ml /100liter) 2 consecutive days for 1 week.

Thursday, January 7, 2010

White Spot Disease

Most diseases are caused by parasites (exto-parasite). Parasites are organisms that live and get food from other organisms without the benefit of the organism.

1. White Dots disease (white spot)

Caused by protozoan parasites called Ichthyophthirius Multifilis. It attacks all types of fish, especially fish fries. This type of parasite penetrates the skin and eats the fish tissue cells and blood.

Signs of disease are :-

- Fishes swimming without a specific direction to avoid these parasites (Early Level)

- External layer of skin becomes gray and there are white spots on the entire body

- White spots and pale color at the gills area shows damaged fish gills and causes difficulty of breathing (fish surfacing to breathe)

- Fish feel itchy and will rub its body to the pond or cage body

- Fish not eating (a serious level)

- Eyes turned gray


1. Methylene Blue (Dosage - 2 ppm (mg/l) - Continuing to recover
2. Sodium Chloride + Formalin (Dosage - 20-25 ppm 1000 ppm) - 3 times in sequential succession every 2 days (1 week)
3. Potassium Permanganate (Dosage - 1-2 ppm) - Continuing until healed
4. Formalin (Dosage - 2.5 ml / 100liter) - Continuing until healed

Fish ponds affected by this disease must be dried and added to the rate of 1.5 tons of lime per hectare. Here are some steps on treating your fishes.

a) Soak fish in water containing the medication in a short period. Put the fishes in a tank or small container. Insert the medication into the tank. Take out and release the fishes after a few minutes. You need to be careful if the medication dosage is too high, it can cause stress to fishes.

b) Soak fishes in the water containing the medication for a long duration. Dose of medication used is low and does not cause stress to fishes. Medication inserted into the pond / fish tank continuously until full recovery or after the effects of medication disappears by itself. New water should be added after a few days.

I will update you more freshwater fish diseases so that you will know what to do if you meet with these type of problems.

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

Freshwater Fish Disease

Typically, fish diseases are caused by pathogens (agents that cause disease) as follows:

a) Parasites (Endoparasit / exto-parasite)
b) Fungi
c) bacteria
d) Virus
e) Causes such as genetic and environmental factors

i) Primary Disease

These disease usually occurs when fishes react with each other pathogens for the first time. This happens when we add large fishes together with small fishes. Even though large fishes were infected with pathogens, it will not show any signs of disease because most large fishes have the immunity against the disease. Unfortunately for these small fishes, it is easily attacked by diseases. In the mating process, primary disease could also occur where the pathogen can spread from female to its young.

ii) Secondary disease

Occurs because of stress factors. This can weaken the fish and cause the fish to easily attacked by pathogens. Factors such as temperature, water quality and others, could easily weaken the fishes and they would not be strong enough to fight the pathogen attack.

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